Saturday, March 14, 2020
buy custom Equal Voting Rights essay Firestone succinctly describes the torturous journey that characterized the radical quest for the recognition of womens rights (2). The leaders of the movement wanted special attention to be given to women just as it was given to matters of race, color and servitude history. The radical leaders worked tirelessly to collect signatures as well as convince fellow women and likeminded people to work towards the noble course. This entailed moving from door to door, and from one town to the next, while at the same time bearing the blunt of meager funds and logistical challenges. Among those spearheaded the movement includes Elizabeth Candy and Susan Antony, who were delegates to National Labor Union Convention in 1868. At this time, efforts to mobilize female labor into associations that could fight for their rights had not yet recorded any signs of success. The association of the Womens Rights Movement (WRM) with Abolitionist Movement is what made it attain its militant attributes. The leaders of the movement were women who had lost their civil rights by virtue of getting married. In fact, the legal structure of the country had declared them dead upon marriage. Those who maintained their civil rights are those who chose not to marry. Even for these one, the ride was not smooth since they had no right to even sign their own wills. After divorce, women could not have custody of the children that they had sired during the marriage. The radical nature of the WRM can best be understood in the context of prevailing circumstances thatwomen were exposed to economically, socially and politically. Women were not allowed to attend school or college. One had to depend on a little knowledge of this skill or the other, often acquired in informal settings, for sustenance. The militarization of the feminist movements was closely linked to the anti-slavery sentiments that had been expressed for many years. Through the work of Abolitionist Movement enabled women to become aware of their rights, to understand the slavery that they had been living in. The political power that the WRM acquired through militant-like agenda was threatening to tear the country into pieces. For this reason, the political class had to pause and listen to the inequality sentiments that angered women throughout the country. The prevailing system seemed incapable of pretending to be democratic any more. It is amazing that feminine sentiments were aired for the first time during the civil war although women were easily persuaded to pursue other cause. If they had not been persuaded, the WRM history would have acquired a completely different history. The American reactionary forces had a strong influence such that without some element of militancy that reminded these forces of the civil war, womens rights concerns would not have gotten any attention in either the congress or House of Representatives. According to Catt, it took women 52 years of endless campaigns in order to have instances of the word male deleted from the American constitution. (44) During this time, 56 referenda were carrie4d outt, 480 campaigns were conducted in order to have legislatures submit suffrage amendments right to where voters were. 47 more campaigns were conducted in order to facilitate the process through which woman suffrage was written in state constitutions. In order for women suffrage planks to be obtained, 277 campaigns in support of party conventions were held (45) Friedman is of the view that contrary to popular beliefs, male chauvinism was not the main motivation for the cause of Womens Rights Movement, although it was a contributing factor (19). However, the influence of male chauvinism became more critical when the underlying forces, all of them constituted by men, worked towards suppressing the Womens Rights Movement. During the 19th century and before, the right for men to rule was so entrenched, absolute and unquestionable that even men took it for granted. It was as the Divine Right of Kings had been at one point in history of western civilization. After all, the laws of the land sanctioned it. Anyone calling for the mildest form of reform could not win through any other means short of militancy. The politics of the Womens Rights Movement took radical approach right from the beginning, in the mid-19th century, thanks to memberships of its leaders in temperance and abolitionist movements. Anti-suffrage forces were ready battle the abolitionists by all means necessary aware of this fact, the feminists had to take on a militant approach in order to assert their determination to fight for their right place in the American society. Buy custom Equal Voting Rights essay
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Lives of Pre-Contact Indigenous Americans - Research Proposal Example First of all, Native Americans were not a single nation Ã¢â¬â there were more than 160 different tribes inhabiting territories from Alaska to Mexico, and they all had different languages, cultures, and lifestyles (UsHistory.org). Some were living by fishing, others Ã¢â¬â by hunting, gathering or growing food. They used to grow wheat, yams, rice, corn, potatoes, and pumpkins among other cultures in order to make their living. Everything surrounding the Natives was made of natural products: animal skins served for clothes and drums, mud, stones and wood Ã¢â¬â as a building material, bones and other animal parts Ã¢â¬â as means to make tools (University of Michigan). So, they greatly depended on nature: weather (if they were growing food) and presence of game in the territories (if they were hunting). With the highly developed technology of making spears and bows with arrows, along with developed by centuries art of hunting, Indians were very successful at hunting and fishing. However, they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t kill more game or catch more fish than they could consume: they had no need to "deplete the animal resources."1 The Natives practiced a "principle of least effort"2, and, consequently, were preserving the population of animals vital for their survival. Hunting for food only, they were taking care of preserving the natural resources by either "rotational use of the territories, or by an increased use of alternate resources"3 to replace animals in the ration. Understanding their dependence on natural forces, Indians had a great respect to the nature, and animals in particular. Animals, being a source of food, and, consequently, life, were revered as spirits: meat was never wasted. Totem poles were one more important part of the culture: the Natives believed each person was naturally given a spirit of a certain animal. For those
Monday, February 10, 2020
Pheromones - Essay Example Pheromonal communication elicits physiologic and behavioural changes in the subject affected. Pheromones were initially studied in insects, where they have an established role as proven by scientific research. Limited sensory development in insects as compared to mammals necessitates the presence of some communication mechanism by which they can exchange information. Pheromones are the substances which perform this function. The complex manner in which ants, termites, honey bees, bugs and other insects organise their daily life without any verbal communication is a definite clue to the presence of pheromones. All insects have a highly organised pattern of social interaction as well as a well defined reproductive pattern which are guided by pheromones. According to an online article by Pines Maya of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the first pheromone ever to be identified (in 1956) was a powerful sex attractant for silkworm moths. It was isolated over a span of twenty years by a team of German researchers. After removing certain glands at the tip of the abdomen of 500,000 female moths, they extracted the compound. Miniscule amounts of this compound elicited excitement in the male moths exhibited by fluttering of their wings. This clear sign that the males had sensed the attractant enabled the scientists to purify the pheromone. The compound was purified subsequently and was named "bombykol" for the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori from which it was extracted. There are enough visibly apparent instances of evidence of the existence of pheromones in our daily life when we observe insect behaviour. Bees and wasps home in to the precise location of their hives; ants leave a trail for others to follow, and the butterflies locate members of the opposite sex during flight. Pheromones are predominantly volatile compounds detected by the sense of smell but sometimes can be liquid contact chemicals (Gullan P.J. et al). They are secreted from the exocrine glands derived from the epidermal cells. Classification of pheromones in insects is based upon five categories of behaviour associated with sex, aggregation, spacing, trail forming and alarm. Sex pheromones are usually secreted during the breeding season by the female which attracts the males. Aggregation pheromones cause insects of both sexes to crowd around the source of the pheromone. Spacing pheromones are anti aggregation and are secreted to repel further arrivals of the species when a particular spot is saturated with the species or the food source is exhausted. Trail marking pheromones are volatile and short lived chemicals that evaporate within days unless reinforced. They are used by social insects like ants to mark the trail to the nest or food source. Alarm pheromones are volatile, non persiste nt compounds that are secreted by insects during aggression by a predator or any other calamity which may affect the nest. They induce protection behaviour by collection or aggregation of the affected species such as bees. The presence and significance of pheromones in higher species in the ecological order has been well documented but the role played by them in human beings has been full of claims, counterclaims and controversies. Social as well as sexual behaviour in the quadruped mammals is strongly influenced by the sense of smell. Territory marking is a prominent feature in animals like lions, tigers and dogs. Such animals can detect the presence of another male by the
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Effects of Video Games on Children Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Technology is a useful servant but a dangerous master,Ã¢â¬ says Norwegian politician Christian Lous Lange (1930, no page). Indeed, technological progress made a step forward in humansÃ¢â¬â¢ civilization, changed peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives and brought new innovations. Virtual reality, as a part of this progress, gave an opportunity to have a look at the world built on imagination with a possibility to be involved in all actions happening there. Computers, PlayStations and other gaming platforms allowing people to interact with a virtual gaming world are becoming popular today, especially among children. Definitely, some video games positively impact on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning skills at schools or colleges, even showing better results in their education. However, these games are one of the controversial issues existing presently. On the level with researchers revealed positive sides of virtual gaming, there have been conducted many other types of research, which discovered some negative effects caused by virtual games. On the one hand, the positive effects of digital games can be linked with an academic education of children. These games can teach young people some subjects at schools or universities, for example, algebra and geometry (Corbett et al., 2001). One of the reasons for this can be that children act actively while playing video games instead of just listening or watching, which make computer games good teachers. Moreover, a practice of video games for educational purposes may be helpful for migrant children. There are several reasons for this such as the possibility to change languages, an opportunity to repeat tasks which were difficult for international students and other reasons. For instance, this practice was successfully used by the Pennsylvania Department of Migrant Education to teach international students (Winograd, 2001). Turning to the negative effects, a serious concern about digital games attributes to violent games, which are gaining popularity among children, whereas educational and challenging games are becoming less popular. Perhaps the most problematic issue connected to the violence in games is the formation of aggression in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. According to Park (2014), new research has proven that those children who are addicted to sit hours playing video games are more likely to act themselves in a hostile way than those who are far from spending lots of time in front of gaming platforms. Shooting at people and killing them, acts of stealing and kidnapping, and a clear vision of bleeding profusely Ã¢â¬â all these factors are responsible for the appearance of kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ aggressive attitude towards other people. But aggressiveness is not only problem. Other behavioral problems are also caused by violent games such as making some actions normal whereas they are abnormal. For insta nce, well-known game Ã¢â¬Å"Grand Theft AutoÃ¢â¬ gives a clear vision of actions which are terrible in reality, such as hiring prostitutes and murdering them to take money back, killing pedestrians by driving on the sidewalk in GTA world, carrying out an attack on people randomly and others (Wendling, 2014). In fact, the history shows that over 125 million of duplicates of GTA were sold which makes this game one of the best sellers (Video Game Sales Wiki, 2013). Additionally, demented activities in some video games are awarded with virtual money, reputation and some points, which can spur on children to realize abnormal and even criminal actions in real world. In 2013 two girls from Italy murdered one man and stole his money and then told the police that they felt as playing GTA while committing the crime (Corriere Della Sera, 2013). There can be observed other negative effects too related to behavioral problems caused by violent games. More studies should be undertaken to analyze all these effects in order to minimize negative consequences carried by them. Similarly, we have to concern about non-behavioral effects of virtual games on children as well. First of all, video games lead to deterioration of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s social skills. According to studies made by a group of specialists, there was found that children addicted to playing games displayed a lower level of social skills compared to normal students (Zamani et al., 2010). The reason for this can be that young people devote their free time to video games instead of talking with coevals and friends, which, obviously, arouses different troubles with communication. The research concluded that children having exposure to playing games avoid communicative relations (Zamani et al., 2010). The explanation concerning why children continuously play video games wa s given in the research: video games are more enjoyable, inform about others, help some children to feel themselves not alone, somehow make children forgotten about existing problems, and video games give an opportunity to participate in game actively and directly (Zamani et al., 2010). Social skills are important in the formation of individuals since relationships and interactions with other people built on communication are pivotal. However, negative effects of video games on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s social skills continue to worry the majority of people, especially parents. Furthermore, health problems caused by video games are one of the major problems to concern about. Since children may seat sufficient time controller-in-hand, they spend less time on physical activities. Hence, obesity may be a great threat to their health problems. Accordingly, one research indicated that children who play virtual games more than 1.5 hours are more inclined to have obesity problems than those who spend less than 1.5 hours (Rehbein et al., 2010). In addition, vision problems triggered by sitting hours in front of the monitor may serve as another example for health-related problems about video games. Parts of the eye such as pupil, cornea, and iris are vulnerable for long viewing on electronic devices, contributing to eye strain (Gillespie, 2002). Thus, this may have negative outcomes such as deterioration of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s vision. Another example of health problem caused by computer games is an epileptic seizure. That is why all video game industries are obliged t o have epilepsy warnings on goods they produced in order to prevent this illness. There are more health problems triggered by video games, especially, among children as Ã¢â¬Å"developingÃ¢â¬ population, since they have recently started their growth in both physical and mental characteristics. In conclusion, technology is not a good or bad invention, it depends on people in what way they use it. Similarly, virtual games have many positive effects in education even giving a better performance of students in academia. Many types of research have proven that interactive computer games are good teachers and may be helpful for migrant students, because of an active interaction with the virtual gaming world, language changing possibilities for international students and repetitiveness of tasks. However, other researchers have shown that violent games may cause some behavioral and non-behavioral problems, which represent a great danger for young people. Behavioral problems include aggressiveness in children, caused by violent actions in the game and non-behavioral problems include deterioration of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s social skills, as a result of lack of communication. Additionally, health-related problems are also one of the negative effects of video games. Illnesses such as the d eterioration of the eyesight, caused by an extensive viewing of the monitor, obesity, which is triggered by a lack of physical activity, epileptic seizure, and many other health problems, are things which needed to be concerned about by everyone. Finally, even though video games have more bad consequences on children rather than positives, with an effort to get rid of negative effects we should save positive effects of video games.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Table of Contents 1. Acknowledgement 2 2. Introduction 3 3. TelBru 4 3.1 Company Profile 4 3.2 Services that provided by TelBru 5 3.3 Home and Business Line 5 3.4 High Speed Broadband (HSBB) 7 3.5 e-Speed 9 3.6 e-Bill 10 3.7 e-Domain 11 4. DST 12 4.1 Company Profile 12 4.2 Services that provided by DST 13 4.3 Prima 14 4.4 Easi 15 4.5 Easi Transit 17 4.6 Postpaid Broadband 18 4.7 Prepaid Broadband 19 4.8 D*Card 20 5. bÃ¢â¬ ¢mobile 23 5.1 Company Profile 23 5.2 Services that provided by bÃ¢â¬ ¢mobile 23 5.3 The Smart Plan 24 5.4 YES! Plan 25 5.5 ZOOM! Broadband 27 Ã¢â¬Æ' 1. Acknowledgement I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my lecture sir Dennis, lecturer of Computer Data Communication (CDC) who give me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic of identify the kinds of services of ISPs (Internet Service Provider) in Brunei, which also helped me in doing a lot of research and I came to know about so many things. Ã¢â¬Æ' 2. Introduction Ã¢â¬Æ' 3. TelBru 3.1 Company Profile Fig.1 TelBru Name: Telekom Brunei Berhad (TelBru) Chairman: Yang Mulia Dato Paduka Haji Hisham bin Haji Mohd. Hanifah Incorporated: 30th May 2002 under the Company Act Cap 39 Fully Operational: 1st April 2006 Shareholder: Minister For Finance Corporation (MOFC) and Brooketon Sdn Bhd (GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s company under the Ministry of Finance). Address: Headquarter Unit 1.01, Block D, Yayasan Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Complex, Jalan Pretty, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8711, Brunei Darussalam. Telephone No.: +673 2321321 Ã¢â¬Æ' 3.2 Services that provided by TelBru Ã¢â¬ ¢ Home Line & Business Line Ã¢â¬ ¢ High Speed Broadband (HSBB) Ã¢â¬ ¢ eSpeed Ã¢â¬ ¢ eBill Ã¢â¬ ¢ eDomain 3.3 Home and Business Line Fig.2 Home & Business Line There are four type of fixed telephone system in B... ...tional numbers bÃ¢â¬ ¢mobile to bÃ¢â¬ ¢mobile landline bÃ¢â¬ ¢mobile to other mobile operator Peak: $0.30/min $0.20/min $0.10/min Off-Peak: $0.20/min $0.10/min $0.10/min Prevailing IDD rates Midnight $0.05/min $0.10/min SMS: bÃ¢â¬ ¢mobile to all local number bÃ¢â¬ ¢mobile to international number $0.05/sms $0.20/sms MMS: bÃ¢â¬ ¢mobile to all local number bÃ¢â¬ ¢mobile to international number $0.10/sms $0.30/sms WAP & Mobile Internet $0.05/1MB Table 26: Rates & Charges for YES! Prepaid 5.5 ZOOM! Broadband ZOOM! Broadband is bÃ¢â¬ ¢mobileÃ¢â¬â¢s 3.5G High-Speed Internet Service. There are currently 2 ZOOM! Broadband Plans: 1. ZOOM! Lite ($30 per month) 2. ZOOM! Unlimted ($60 per month) ZOOM! Broadband Plan: SMS MMS Voice Video Data ZOOM! Lite Free 300 Free 10 Free 450 min Free 50 min 2GB ZOOM! Unlimited Free 800 Free 30 Free 1000 min Free 200 min Unlimited Table 27: ZOOM! Broadband Plan
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
This Is an Invisible Illness that affects a person's mental state after being exposed to a aromatic or near fatal incident. It is important to note that PATS doesn't just affect soldiers. Anyone can be impacted by PATS. Humans involved in car accidents, witnessing death, being in natural disasters, or even hearing a traumatic event can cause PATS. In this paper, I will explore the history, the sculptural context, the significance and stigma, and the Impact of culture on PATS in American Iraq and Afghanistan soldiers.By definition Ã¢â¬Å"Post-traumatic stress disorder (PATS) Is a mental health condition that's triggered by a terrifying event ? either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the eventÃ¢â¬ (PAP, 2000). PATS is diagnosed used the Diagnostic Statistics Manual (ADSM). To summarize the diagnosis, Ã¢â¬Å"Diagnostic criteria for PATS include a history of exposure to a traumati c event meeting two criteria and symptoms from each of three symptom clusters: Intrusive recollections, avoiding/numbing symptoms, and hyper-arousal symptomsÃ¢â¬ (PAP, 2000).Most importantly, diagnosing PATS takes over a month and final diagnosis isn't reached until after six months. This means that a person can experience these symptoms for p to a month without being diagnosed. History The history of PATS can date back to pre- industrial times. But, it most notably came to age in the 20th century. During World War l, this mental condition was known as solution fast. Often times, it would cripple a soldier leading him off the battlefield and sent home. Soldiers named and defined the term themselves. The symptoms were fatigue, tremor, confusion, nightmares, and impaired sight and hearing.Doctors diagnosed shell shock when a soldier was unable to function and nothing appeared to be wrong physically. The Ã¢â¬Å"shell shockÃ¢â¬ diagnosis was initially reserved for notations that f ollow a concussive shock delivered by high explosives to the head or spine (Young, 1995). Sadly, shell shock was considered cowardly (Young, 1995). It was a debatable illness and highly stigmatize disease because soldiers are supposed to be tough. In WI, American physicists gave shell shock a new name, battle fatigue. This new name for shell shock was still not universally accepted.Leaders of the American Army still showed no sympathy for this mental illness. The general consensus was that if the soldiers aren't physically injured then they need to get out of the hospital and return to war. But in 1946, the National Mental Health Act was passed. This provided expansion of mental health facilities in America for veterans. Most notably, the Veteran Affairs (VA) hospitals mostly cared for battle fatigued soldiers (Young, 1995). During the Vietnam War, the ADSM-II was released. The ADSM- II literally had no diagnosis for combat stress even though the ADSM- I had Ã¢â¬Å"gross distress di sorderÃ¢â¬ .The Vietnam War was the first time the U. S. Tested the strategy of twelve month deployments. In earlier wars, soldiers didn't return home from war until the war was over. This was the reason PATS had such a delayed onset (Meager). Vietnam veterans returning home from war found it impossible to seek medical care from the Veteran Affairs office due to this (Meager, 2007). The Veteran Affairs medical staff had a difficult time treating soldiers from the Vietnam War because they couldn't find reliable data since the name of the symptoms changed every major war.According to Meager, psychologists, Vietnam veterans, and anti- war activists huddled together to push PATS in the ADSM-III in 1980. PATS was first defined as being triggered by Ã¢â¬Å"events that were unusualÃ¢â¬ . Just having an official name prompted scientist to begin studying everything behind the disorder (Meager, 007). Scientist and physicians have now added a great amount of new diagnosis criteria to the A DSM-IV, as mentioned in the introduction. Today, the United States Army is all volunteers. Soldiers now sign up for a specific amount of time.Meaning, when the soldiers deployment is over, the soldier is still in the Army. During the Vietnam War, soldiers were drafted from the U. S. Population. The soldiers would serve a specific amount of time in theatre and return home to their families. The importance of this is that these volunteer soldiers face multiple deployments during their contracts unwillingly. A veteran of the Iraq war saw this as an Ã¢â¬Å"attempt to turn our fighting men and women into Rumba- like killing machinesÃ¢â¬ (Meager, 2007, peg. 95). But, the United States Army battles to reduce the mental cessation of killing via Ã¢â¬Å"Total ControlÃ¢â¬ .This program concluded that trained soldiers are more likely to shoot at an enemy only after being fired upon. Unfortunately, preventing psychological problems seems ineffective in this Ã¢â¬Å"Total ControlÃ¢â¬ conce ptÃ¢â¬ (Meager, 2007). Many types of efforts are being made by the United States Army to combat PATS. In 2004 at the beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Stress Control was initiated. This was a Joint mission between the Army and the Marines to treat mentally ill Iraq to treat American soldiers emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components of combat stress (Meager, 2007).The ADSM-V was added in May 2013. The manual still contains mostly the same data from the ADSM-IV. The changes are seen in the length of time it takes for diagnosis. It appears that PATS is here to stay in the medical world. Significance of PATS The main reason I'm interested in this mental health topic is because I served in the military and hate to see the greatest people of my generation suffering from their heroic actions. These men and women signed up to fight an unknown enemy on foreign soil after the disastrous events of September 1 1 the, 2001. Some of these soldiers were deployed three times in one contract.These soldiers are exposed to death, injuries, and extreme conditions. When the soldiers come home, they are exposed to nightmares, panic attacks, flashbacks, and negative symptoms that are triggered by normal everyday transactions. The significance of PATS lies in the statistics. The correlation between PATS and suicide is far too high. A study found that the higher the amount of traumatic events a soldier witnesses, the more alienable the person is to suicide (Friedman, 2004). The suicide rate in active duty soldiers and veterans is the highest it's ever been.During the Iraq war soldiers were committing suicide at a rate of 16 suicides per 100,000 soldiers. At home, soldiers were committing suicide at a rate of 11 per 100,000 soldiers (VIVA, 2009). Therefore, the Army is seeing veterans commit suicide before, during and after the war. This is largely agreed to stem from PATS. Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan veterans committing suicide account for 20 percent of all suicides in the United States. In addition, veterans account for 13 percent of the population. The suicide rate triples from veteran to civilian peers (VIVA, 2009).It is important to note that it is impossible to have an exact estimate of the suicide rate in veterans. The Department of Defense does not keep a record of this statistic (Meager, 2007). This makes sense because an organization does not keep records of facts they don't want to know. It is up to the families and coroners to label each suicide with veteran status to add to the statistics. Another issue is that we see homeless people committing suicide. It would be impossible to know if they were a veteran. Stigma from Culture and Perception In the United States, it seems as if every mental disorder has a tremendous amount of stigma.Stigmas surrounding mental illnesses found in civilian society carry over to the military. Veteran personal don't seek treatment because they are afraid of the consequences (Friedman, 2004). It is estimated that close to fifty percent of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with PATS will not seek treatment because they will be seen as weak by fellow soldiers (VIVA, 2009). Unfortunately, this stigma exists through past experiences of their peer's treatment towards PATS (Meager, 2007). Soldiers who have PATS are twice more likely to claim this stigma than soldiers without PATS.I would like to add my personal perspective. While serving in the military, any form of medical treatment was discouraged by first line leaders and peers. The first step in treatment is declaring to your First Sergeant that you want to go to Ã¢â¬Å"sick callÃ¢â¬ . This is a request to seek treatment from a physician. This is done at 5:30 in the morning. Soldiers must wake up extra early and confess their illness to a non- physician before seeking treatment. This is a systematizing experience because a soldier's First eve a physical or mental issue, it may set you back from a promotion.In addition, if y ou went to Ã¢â¬Å"sick callÃ¢â¬ too often, you were labeled as a Ã¢â¬Å"sick call rangerÃ¢â¬ . This is a negative term in the military. A soldier is considered weak if he or she seeks medical treatment. Often times, soldiers who had the flu, a swollen ankle, or a mental issue did not seek treatment because they were scared it would affect their career and reputation. The culture of being strong and masculine is obvious in the United States military culture. Case Study of PATS I would like to share a personal case study of PATS. I served with many great men and women in the Army from 2009- 2013.I still keep in touch with many fellow soldiers. In a recorded telephone call, I interviewed former Staff Sergeant Anthony Poll. Staff Sergeant Poll served in the Army from 2005-2011 as a forward observer. He was responsible for calling in airstrip's and artillery strikes on nearby enemies in Iraq. He served three tours in Iraq during his six year stint in the military. He was diagnosed w ith PATS from the VA hospital after he was honorably discharged from the Army. I wanted to find out why he never sought treatment for PATS while serving. Anthony Poll said to me, Ã¢â¬Å"l didn't seek treatment because I was afraid I wouldn't be promoted.At the time, I wanted to make the military my career and I thought that I would be seen as a weak soldier if I talked about that stuff. Ã¢â¬ This is one case that proves the stigma surrounding PATS and the military. Next, I asked Staff Sergeant Poll why he left the military, because at the time he told me it was becoming too physically tolling on his body. He claimed, Ã¢â¬Å"l left the Army because I was having nightmares and panic attacks. I knew I had it (PATS). I didn't think I could lead men into battle while suffering from it. I had many dark days where I thought I couldn't survive through it.I figured I could leave the Army and seek treatment since being in the Army with it (PATS) is impossibleÃ¢â¬ . Sadly, this seems to b e a recurring theme in the Armed Forces. During the interview, it was obvious that Poll believed he would have never been promoted to Staff Sergeant if he had sought treatment for PATS. Medication, appointments, and stigmas would have keep Poll off the deployment list and training schedules. I was surprised Staff Sergeant Poll volunteered for this interview, but he told me that being out of the military helps in the treatment ofPATS. Not every PATS story like Staff Sergeant Viol's is simple. For example, Joshua Lee Movie provides the world with a traumatic experience with PATS. He refused to seek treatment after returning from war because of the stigma of disclosing it to the Army. Like Poll, he believed that it would put his career at risk. In addition, he wanted to become a police officer but believe it would be impossible after they found out he had PATS. Sadly, he committed suicide six months after returning home from his eleven month deployment to Iraq (VIVA, 2008).Staff Sergea nt Poll and Joshua Lee Movies story are Just two case studies that show the significance of the PATS problem. The stigma surrounding the PATS in the military is too high. The culture of trying to be labeled as strong and defiant is crippling many soldiers. In 2012, active duty suicides were more than combat related deaths in Afghanistan. Most of these deaths were contributed to PATS (VIVA, 2008). The Department of Defense is enforcing many campaigns to combat this stigma, but it starts with the leaders of every individual unit to fight the systematizing culture.Socio-cultural Context the United States for many different reasons. Considering the socioeconomic diversity of the people coming into the armed forces helps us get a better grip on PATS (Collar, G. , & Lend, D, 2012). Collar and Lend argue that most U. S. Recruits come from a low socioeconomic class. The lower classes do not have money for college and the United States Army is seen as the last resort to a steady life for man y high school graduates. The Army offers many incentives to Join such as signing bonuses, free college, and free health care. (Collar, G. & Lend, D, 2012) On page 136,Ã¢â¬ The decision to enlist as a last resort alternative because of economic hardship rates a sense of forced military service in which deep-rooted motives such as patriotism, honor, sense of duty, and an overall true excitement about volunteering for service in a time of war can be artificially present(Collar, G. , & Lend, D, 2012). Ã¢â¬ Arthur Galilean in his article Ã¢â¬Å"Rethinking Psychiatry' offers that most mental disorders are most prevalent in the lowest classes of society, poor people. In addition, minority groups such as Hispanic and African American are at higher risk for mental disorders (Galilean, 1988).I can conclude that the recruits that come from the low lass in the United States are more prone to PATS because deeply rooted motives such as patriotism and honor are sometimes artificial. Often ti mes, leaders have to tell their soldiers to do things that are morally wrong such as firing near children or killing innocent people. When soldiers with artificial patriotism experience this, their trauma is far higher than that of a fellow soldier who believes he or she is doing the action for their country. In addition, many recruits could have multiple mental illnesses present before Joining the Army.For example, when I enlisted in the Army I was never given a thorough psychological exam. I was given a thorough physical exam where doctors would try to find anything physically wrong with me. I was stripped down to my underwear and told to walk, bend, and sit in different unique positions. This made sense to me because the Army would save money on future health expenses of incoming soldiers. But, it was interesting to me that the Army never gave sat me down with a psychiatrist. A recruit is told to disclose any mental health history, but if the military is a last resort option many recruits simply lie.If you are fighting a war with depression, bi-polar illness, or schizophrenia to odds of you evolving PATS would seem high. Relating PATS We can relate PATS from war in other avenues such as the effects of the drought in Australia to farming men. Margaret Olsson and Jenny Kent explore the link between rural masculinity and poor mental health outcomes in their article Ã¢â¬Å"The Big Dry'. Masculinity in these farming men was a great quality to possess when water was plentiful, but when a drought took place masculinity was extremely unhealthy (Olsson & Kent, 2006).This statement ties into soldiers because masculinity is a great trait to possess while fighting a war, but when the war is over a soldier must overcome their salinity to seek treatment for PATS. When the Ã¢â¬Å"Big Dry' hit Australia, farming men had to face an impending doom by either selling their farm or working countless hours tending to their farm. But, the masculinity in the Australian farmers kep t them from selling their farms. This resulted in men working tirelessly on their farms with and many committed suicide or abused alcohol (Olsson & Kent, 2006).In correlation, some men returning from war are faced with the impending doom of PATS. Instead of going to a physician, soldiers try to be immaculate about this issue. Often time's, suicide and substance abuse is the result of their masculinity. It is the masculinity and stubbornness of Australian farmers and soldiers returning from war to try to fight mental illnesses on their own. This leads to suicide and/or substance abuse. The drought in Australia and the mental illnesses that follow can be summed up by what is called isolating.It is a new term that was coined by Glenn Albrecht as Ã¢â¬Å"a form of psychic or existential distress caused by environmental change. Ã¢â¬ Many analogies can be drawn between isolating and PATS. Albrecht argues that people feel distressed when they perceive their environments as harmful (Albre cht, 2007). This relates to PATS in war because when mentally ill soldiers return home from war, they perceive their local environments negativity. This means that the soldier believes their home environment has changed negatively. Soldiers have a feeling of, Ã¢â¬Å"nothing will ever be the sameÃ¢â¬ when returning home from war.This is followed by depression, substance abuse, and trauma if not treated. In addition to the effects of the drought on Australia farmers, PATS can be related to the historical trauma in the Flathead Indian tribe of Montana, United States. Dry. Maria Yellow Horse Breather says historical trauma is Ã¢â¬Å"cumulative emotional and psychological wounding over the lifespan and across generations, emanating from massive group trauma (Breather, 2011). Ã¢â¬ Dry. Theresa O'Neal in her book Ã¢â¬Å"Disciplined HeartsÃ¢â¬ discusses the structural violence in the Flathead Indian tribe that has always instigated historical trauma.The Flathead Indians have had th eir culture stripped away by the Euro-American culture due to institutionalized misunderstandings. Therefore, historical trauma exists in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans. This is showed through to history of PATS, an emotional and psychological wounding throughout all wars. In addition symptoms of PATS have existed throughout all wars resulting in massive group trauma. Conclusion The Veteran Affairs Office still hasn't lived up to its mission statement that it will do everything it can for the United States Veteran.Every year, the Veteran Affairs office underestimates the number of new PATS patients. For example, in 2006 the VA expected 2,900 new cases from Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. But, the hospitals saw a staggering 17,827 new patients for PATS. The quality of care for United States veterans is hindered by the shortage of trained mental health providers and an inadequate screening process. (VIVA, 2009) PATS develops over a long period of time. Catching the illness earlier i s the key to treatment (Young, 1995).In addition, the United States civilian treatment of soldiers when they return home from battle is critical in the development of PATS. Soldiers from the Vietnam War returned to negative welcoming which seems to help the development of PATS. It was shown through Vietnam veterans that Just having someone supporting them showed the most progress in their treatment of PATS. Now, Iraq and Afghanistan veterans are honored at sporting events, television commercials, and movies. This helps the soldier disassociate from the cause of the war helping him or her readjust to society (Friedman, 2004).It is time for the Department of Defense and Veteran Affairs to do for his country is good enough to be given a square deal afterwardsÃ¢â¬ . The Department of Defense needs to increase funding of the Veteran Affair's office as the war in Afghanistan is dwindling down and the Iraq war is over. Of course a broken bone is easy to fix, but a broken mind takes time. The Department of Defense needs to flood the VA with mental health physicians and fund new studies in the treatment of PATS. If not, the United States will lose a great amount of the greatest men and women of the millennial generation.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Critique of Julie Aberdeens essay on the writings of Langston Hughes during the Harlem Renaissance Aberdeens essay on Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance had a clear theme that was supported throughout by many examples. While an actual thesis statement was lacking, or a title that would have provided similar direction, the content stayed close to the topics of striving for equality and cultural identity through the writings of Hughes. A good thesis statement for this essay might be: This essay will examine how Langston Hughes sought equality and a cultural identity through his writing during the Harlem Renaissance. The first theme of striving for equality was well supported by Aberdeen, through the use of direct quotes from Hughes poetry. The second theme of striving for cultural identity was supported in the same way, but elaborated further on this topic by examining Hughes use of the Black English Vernacular, and jazz and blues phrasing and tempo, in his poetry. If there were a dominant theme in this essay, it would have been striving for cultural identity. There was, however, a background theme that I identified in this essay. This was the implication that Hughes would not have written what he wrote if the Harlem Renaissance had not occurred. Im not convinced of this implication. The only reason I noticed this assumption is because I was captured by the essay as written. So this objection is purely a philosophical one and unrelated to how well the